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热刺vs阿森纳360直播: 互聯網30歲了,發明人談論互聯網的弊端和解決辦法

热刺贝尔 www.gyplwd.com.cn Kevin Kelleher 2019年03月18日

在網絡迎來30歲生日之際,伯納斯-李的反思敦促與網絡相關的人們接受各項核心原則。

生日快樂,萬維網。30年前,英國工程師蒂姆·伯納斯-李爵士開創了讓通訊即時廉價的網絡媒介,催生了新一代內容瀏覽者,也由此啟動了價值數十億美元的業務,幾乎顛覆了各行各業。

為了慶祝,伯納斯-李寫了一篇嚴肅的文章,反思了當代的互聯網狀況,認為在發展過程中已經失去了早期的價值?!巴繅丫涑曬補慍?、圖書館、醫生辦公室、商店、學校、設計工作室、辦公室、電影院、銀行等等?!彼吹?,但網絡也充滿了“機能障礙”。他呼吁政府、企業和用戶團結起來,在問題更糟之前解決。

“雖然網絡創造了機會,給邊緣化群體發聲機會,讓日常生活更容易,但同時也給了騙子機會,讓傳播仇恨的人也能發聲,導致各種犯罪更容易?!?伯納斯-李寫道,隨后詳細描述了出現障礙的三個領域:

蓄意的惡意,如國家操縱的黑客攻擊、犯罪行為和在線騷擾。

系統設計不正當的激勵措施,犧牲用戶價值,例如基于廣告的收入模式,在商業上獎勵誘導點擊和傳謠。

善意設計無意中導致負面后果,如網絡話語中出現的憤怒偏激態度。

1989年,伯納斯-李在歐洲核子研究中心(CERN)工作時創建了萬維網。他的想法是通過鼠標點擊和新生的互聯網,將連接不同文檔的超文本或軟件結合起來。1989年3月11日,伯納斯-李向CERN提交了信息管理系統的建議,在分布式計算機上構建超文本系統,然后通過互聯網連接。

就像人們總說的,后來的故事都寫在歷史里。近年來,網絡帶來的問題似乎已經超過益處,監管機構也召集Facebook和谷歌等巨頭的高管研究解決問題。歐洲監管機構開始頒布法律控制數字內容的問題,一些美國政客呼吁解散強大的巨頭。

在去年的網絡峰會上,伯納斯-李和WEB基金會組成了專門組織應對網絡面臨的挑戰,為政府、企業和個人推出一系列須遵循的核心原則,防止互聯網造成更具破壞性的影響。各項原則涉及通用訪問、建立強大和互相尊重的社區以及?;ひ膠透鋈聳蕕?。

網絡迎來30歲生日之際,伯納斯-李的反思敦促與網絡相關的人們接受各項核心原則。

“網絡的本意是為每個人服務,只要聯合起來我們就可以實現改變?!輩傷?李寫道?!骯?0年網絡發生了巨大變化,如果認為未來30年里網絡沒法變得更好,就犯了失敗主義和想象力匱乏的錯誤。但如果現在放棄將網絡變好,網絡也可以繼續惡化下去?!保ú聘恢形耐?/p>

譯者:馮豐

審校:夏林

Happy Birthday, World Wide Web. It was 30 years ago that British engineer Sir Tim Berners-Lee effectively created the medium that has made communication instantaneous and cheap, spawned a generation of content surfers, launched many a billion-dollar business, and upended nearly every industry.

To celebrate, Berners-Lee wrote a somber reflection on where the web—which along the way lost its early capitalization—is today. “The web has become a public square, a library, a doctor’s office, a shop, a school, a design studio, an office, a cinema, a bank, and so much more,” he wrote, but it is also rife with “dysfunction.” He then called on governments, companies, and users alike to unite in combatting those problems before they get worse.

“While the web has created opportunity, given marginalized groups a voice, and made our daily lives easier, it has also created opportunity for scammers, given a voice to those who spread hatred, and made all kinds of crime easier to commit,” Berners-Lee wrote, before outlining each of the three areas of dysfunctions in more detail:

Deliberate, malicious intent, such as state-sponsored hacking and attacks, criminal behavior, and online harassment.

System design that creates perverse incentives where user value is sacrificed, such as ad-based revenue models that commercially reward clickbait and the viral spread of misinformation.

Unintended negative consequences of benevolent design, such as the outraged and polarized tone and quality of online discourse.

Berners-Lee created the World Wide Web while working as a fellow at CERN in 1989. His insight was to combine hypertext, or software that connected different documents with a mouse click, with the nascent Internet. On March 11, 1989, Berners-Lee submitted to CERN a proposal for an information-management system that would build a hypertext system on the distributed computers then linked by the Internet.

The rest, as they say, is history. In recent years, the web’s problems seem to have begun outweighing its benefits, with executives from giants like Facebook and Google summoned before regulators to address concerns. While regulators in Europe are beginning to enact laws to control the problems of digital content, some U.S. politicians are starting to call for breaking up the powerful giants.

At last year’s Web Summit conference, Berners-Lee and the Web Foundation, a group formed to address the challenges facing the web, unveiled a set of core principles for governments, companies and people to follow in an effort to curb the Internet’s more damaging effects. The principles concerned universal access, building strong and respectful communities, and protecting privacy and personal data.

Berners-Lee’s reflection on the web’s 30th birthday urged everyone involved with the web to embrace those core principles.

“The web is for everyone and collectively we have the power to change it,” Berners-Lee wrote. “Given how much the web has changed in the past 30 years, it would be defeatist and unimaginative to assume that the web as we know it can’t be changed for the better in the next 30. If we give up on building a better web now, then the web will not have failed u

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